When Henry James came to Wenlock

“If Gaskell asks you to Wenlock don’t for the world fail to go.”

Henry Adams in a letter to Henry James 1877

IMG_0944

This is the house where Henry James stayed  on his visits to Much Wenlock in 1877, 1878 and 1882. At the time it was known as The  Abbey, but  once it was the Abbot’s House, and part of a great medieval Cluniac priory whose ruins stand beside it. Only the house, and the town’s parish church survived Henry VIII’s great monastic dissolving campaign of 1540.

I’ve recently read, too, that the Dissolution did in fact involve actual structural ‘dissolving’. The first thing King Henry’s agents did in their bid to disempower the clergy and seize their estates was to rip the lead off the monastery roofs. The wear and tear of English weather then did the rest. Since Wenlock Priory was once one of the most imposingly large religious houses in all Europe, you can well see how efficiently the elements did their work.

100_5898

The adjacent small town of Much Wenlock town dates from at least from Saxon times when St. Milburga, daughter of a Mercian king, founded the first religious house here. She was Abbess of Wenlock  between 675-690 AD. The later priory was the work of the invading Normans, who liked to use looming architecture to cow the natives into submission. The monks were brought in from France, but it wasn’t  until end of the 12th century when Bishop Odo, a former Cluniac monk, published his account of the discovery of St.Milburga’s bones (he describes them as “beautiful and luminous”)  that this great house acquired the kind of saintly cachet that ensured serious pilgrim-appeal, and thus brought much prosperity to the town.

After the Dissolution, however, pragmatism ruled, and much of the fallen priory masonry was used to build or expand the town’s homes and businesses. Thereafter, Much Wenlock’s success was based on providing a small but busy mercantile and manufacturing centre for the local agricultural and quarrying community. It even had two Members of Parliament.

But back to  Henry James (1843-1916). What on earth had brought this widely travelled writer to the little town of Much Wenlock? And not once, but three times.

HenryJamesPhotograph[1]

In fact it was only the urging of a friend, Harvard history professor, Henry Brooke Adams, that brought James here at all on that first visit in 1877. He hardly knew his hosts, Charles and Lady Catherine Milnes Gaskell. Charles Milnes Gaskell, rich barrister and landowner, was a close friend of Adams, and it was Adams who indirectly secured the invitation for Henry James. He knew that James would love the Abbey. Hence the exhortation: “If Gaskell asks you to Wenlock don’t for the world fail to go.”

And so, further enticed by “a gracious note from Lady Catherine Gaskell” and armed with a copy of Murray’s Handbook of Shropshire, Cheshire and Lancashire, Henry James left London for deepest Shropshire, travelling by train to Much Wenlock. The details of how he spent his time on his  five-day visit appear in a travel sketch called Abbeys and Castles, later published as part of Portraits of Places (1883).

Railwayramblers.org.uk

At the station (now private houses) he was met by the Gaskell’s coachman, Crawley, driven into the town, passing in sight of Holy Trinity Church (today without the spire shown in the Frith photo). Here they  turned left into the Bull Ring… 

100_4966

passing Priory Cottage on the left…

100_5338

…the turning right into the Abbey’s winding drive…

100_4997

…with the priory ruins on the left.

IMG_0952 - Copy

The carriage would then have swung hard  into the open courtyard of the Abbey, and this would have been Henry James’ first view of his destination. Well-travelled as he was, I think he would have been astonished.

Adams’ certainty that his friend would love the place was spot on. In Portraits and Places (p278)  Henry James says:

“It is not too much to say that after spending twenty four hours in a house that is six hundred years old, you seem yourself to have lived in it for six hundred years. You seem to have hollowed the flags with your tread, and to have polished the oak with your touch. You walk along the little stone gallery where the monks used to pace, looking out of the gothic window places at their beautiful church, and you pause at the big round, rugged doorway that now admits you to the drawing room. The massive step by which you ascend to the threshold is a trifle crooked, as it should be; the lintels are cracked and worn by a myriad-fingered years…it seems wonderfully old and queer. Then you turn into the drawing room, where you find modern conversation and late publications and the prospect of dinner. The new life and the old have melted together; there is no dividing-line.”

In letters James admits to being rather  in love with Lady Catherine, whom he describes as a perfect English rose. She was only twenty years old at the time, and expecting her first child. She apparently put garden flowers in his room and made sure he had plenty of writing paper and pens. But when it came to entertainment, this was down to Charles Gaskell. Despite the rainy weather, he and James appear to have yomped all over the district looking at stately homes and other ruins. They also took the train to extend their excursions to Stokesay Castle and Ludlow. Henry James was clearly enchanted. Of Much Wenlock and its setting he says:

“There is a noiseless little railway running through the valley, and there is an ancient little town lying at the abbey-gates – a town, indeed, with no great din of vehicles, but with goodly brick houses, with a dozen ‘publics’, with tidy, whitewashed cottages, and with little girls…bobbing curtsies in the street. But even now, if one had wound one’s way into the valley by the railroad, it would be rather a surprise to find a small ornamental cathedral in a spot on the whole so natural and pastoral. How impressive then must the beautiful church  have been in the days of its prosperity, when the pilgrim came down to it from the grassy hillside, and its bells made the stillness sensible.”

Things have changed of course, although we still have a fair few ‘publics’ for so small a town – five in fact. But there are no longer little girls who curtsey to gentleman, and sadly no railway, which means instead we do now have the inevitable din of vehicles..

100_5337

100_5024

IMG_1074

100_5328

*

An interesting aside to the Henry James’ Shropshire travelogue is that he is said to have been working on his disturbing ghost story The Turn of the Screw while staying at the Abbey. He certainly had the supernatural on his mind during that first visit.

“…there is of course a ghost – a gray friar who is seen in the dusky hours at the end of passages. Sometimes the servants see him; they afterwards go surreptitiously to sleep in the village. Then, when you take your chamber-candle and go wandering bedward by a short cut through empty rooms, you are conscious of a peculiar sentiment toward the gray friar which you hardly know whether to interpret as a hope or a reluctance.”  (Portraits of Places)

And this does rather remind me of a passage in The Turn of the Screw  where the governess narrator describes how her young charge, Flora, takes her on a guided tour through the rambling old mansion at Bly:

“Young as she was, I was struck, throughout our little tour, with her confidence and courage with the way, in empty chambers and dull corridors, on crooked staircases that made me pause and even on the summit of an old machicolated square tower that made me dizzy.”

But then Henry James seems to have made a life’s career of ‘staying’ in, or visiting large country houses. All the same, I like the idea of his brewing this grim tale in Wenlock. Certainly from across the old monastery parkland, the Abbey does have a more brooding and sinister air. And now I’ve sown that notion, I’ll leave you with some more views of undissolved monastic relicts:

100_5003

100_4984

References:

Cynthia Gamble John Ruskin, Henry James and the Shropshire Lads New European Publications Ltd 2008

Vivien Bellamy  A History of Much Wenlock Shropshire Books 2001

copyright 2014 Tish Farrell

34 thoughts on “When Henry James came to Wenlock

  1. This is fabulous Tish; I love ‘The Turn of the Screw’ and you’ve just given so much colour and shape to my imaginings about it. Thanks, Su. 🙂

    1. That’s brilliant, Mike. He can sometimes be a bit of a challenge. The Turn of the Screw is interesting because it has inspired so many other versions – in film, opera. And everyone argues about what is really going on in the narrative.

  2. A beautiful post. I enjoyed learning of James visit here, but would have enjoyed the visit myself, through you, even without following this famous author. And I agree with him about the sensation of visiting a very old structure. I’ve found the same to be true about old tools as well. We join the many spirits that have enjoyed or experienced the place. It enriches us… as you have enriched us with this post.

    1. Thank you, Shimon. I’m glad you came on this little tour. It adds to the place for me too, now that I know that fellow bloggers have ‘been here’. And yes, old places, old tools and their layers of ‘being’ and ‘doing’. I like James’ feeling that past and present have melted into one. It gives one a sort of electric charge at the base of one’s skull – some kind of awakening.

  3. I have one James novel, Beast in the Jungle. I read it years ago and cannot remember much. After reading this, it puts the author in a different light. My curiosity is piqued. Maybe I shall dig it out later today?
    And where on earth did you dig up a word like ‘yomping’? 🙂

    1. I think it was invented during the Falklands War. The Brits had to do a lot yomping apparently once landed on the main island and they found there was a lot of rough ground to be covered. I take it to mean enforced/ or overzealous hiking at high speed. 🙂

  4. Wonderful, I like reading about buildings and places and as you know, MW is close to me. The Abbot’s House is fabulous. I must visit the town and take some photos. A shame that most of the railway has disappeared in Shropshire, makes getting about without a car almost impossible!

    1. Yes, indeed. If the railway through Wenlock still worked you’d even be able to get to London, as well as to now quite isolated villages. Mr Beeching has a good deal to answer for. Wherever his spirit it is I wish it the incessant rumble and roar of HGVs and concentrated essence of traffic fumes. And yes, lots to photograph in MW building wise.

  5. Tish I love the way you make a fascinating literary and visual story out the the otherwise mundane. You are a weaver of detail. Incidentally Stokesay Castle and Ludlow are among my favourite places in England.
    I refuse to see you in a workspace that’s anything other than organised…

    1. You are so very kind, Tony – about my posts and my work place. Perhaps if I apply your power of imagination to my office, it will emerge from the many layered accretions. And yes aren’t Stokesay and Ludlow lovely places to visit.

  6. Tish, I stumbled across your blog while searching for information about Henry James’s travels in Shropshire – this is a wonderful piece. (I’ve just downloaded Portraits of Places as a result.) I’m so glad to have found you and your writing.
    – Marie

  7. What a great post! HENRY JAMES and HENRY ADAMS are two of my favorite writers. I love reading about that period when those in the “leisure classes” were able to enjoy these country rambles and lengthy visits.

    On a tour of Wales that I took last year we passed by MUCH WENLOCK on our way to Bridgenorth – another lovely town. Sorry we couldn’t stop. Tish, thanks for a great piece.

    Helen Breen, Boston

    1. hello, Helen. What a lovely comment. So glad you enjoyed this post. I’m thinking I might do a sequel at some point. And next time you’re in the UK, you must come to Wenlock. We have a lovely hotel called The Raven, that has many connections with the town’s history, including the founding of the modern Olympic Games in the 1850s by our local doctor. Btw, we love your neck of the woods too. Had a fleeting stay in Boston a couple of Septembers ago. Somewhere to return to.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s